Blood

Aldosterone normal, high and low values

Aldosterone normal, high and low values

What is aldosterone Aldosterone is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal gland, the adrenal gland, from cholesterol. It is the main hormone produced in the first part of the cortical portion of the adrenal gland, called the glomerular zone. What aldosterone is used for: metabolism and functions Unlike most of the cortical tissue of the ...

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Platelets or PLT

Platelets or PLT

Platelets (also called thrombocytes or PLT) are corpuscular elements of the blood that are responsible for blocking blood loss in case of vascular lesions through the process of haemostasis and coagulation. What are platelets? Platelets, with an average life of 10 days, are produced ...

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ANEMIA: causes, symptoms and treatment

ANEMIA: causes, symptoms and treatment

Anemia is a very common condition. The diagnosis is made through the analysis of the blood count: the finding of low hemoglobin, low red blood cells or low hematocrit on blood tests means suffering from anemia. The main causes of anemia are macrocytic and iron deficiency anemias, hemoglobinopathies such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. The main symptoms of anemia are skin paleness, fatigue ...

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LOW NEUTROPHIL GRANULOCYTES or NEUTROPENIA: symptoms and causes

LOW NEUTROPHIL GRANULOCYTES or NEUTROPENIA: symptoms and causes

The finding of low neutrophilic granulocytes (more properly: low granulocytes or neutropenia) is not uncommon, and is often accompanied by the presence of low leukocytes (leukopenia), since neutrophils are the main components of white blood cells together with lymphocytes. The causes of low neutrophils are mainly disorders of bone marrow production, neoplasms, but also drugs, acute inflammatory states and ...

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LOW LYMPHOCYTES - LYMPHOPENIA symptoms and causes

Low lymphocytes or lymphopenia, a common condition that should be investigated as soon as possible.

Low lymphocytes or lymphopenia: main symptoms and causes The finding of low lymphocytes (lymphopenia or lymphocytopenia) is less common than lymphocytosis. Causes of low lymphocytes can be abnormalities of bone marrow function, tumors, numerous drugs, the presence of an acute inflammatory state or infections, especially viral ones. Symptoms of ...

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LOW ESR symptoms and causes

LOW ESR symptoms and causes

The finding of low ESR is less frequent than the finding of high ESR. The main causes of low ESR are dehydration, increased blood density due to the presence of a high number of red blood cells in the blood, a reduction in the protein concentration in the blood or an allergic state. The main symptoms of reduced ESR are those related ...

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VES ALTA symptoms and causes

VES ALTA symptoms and causes

The finding of high ESR is indicative of an ongoing inflammatory state. The main causes of high ESR are infectious, autoimmune, rheumatological diseases and everything that increases the state of inflammation of our organism. The main symptoms of high ESR are fever, joint pain, sweating and all symptoms ...

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LOW TRIGLYCERIDES symptoms and causes

LOW TRIGLYCERIDES symptoms and causes

The finding of low triglycerides is less frequent than the finding of high triglycerides. Triglycerides are fatty substances used as a source of energy and in the metabolism of cells. The main causes of low triglycerides are usually a state of malnutrition or malnutrition, more rarely it depends on liver disease or ...

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High creatinine symptoms and causes

High creatinine symptoms and causes

 High creatinine High creatinine or hypercreatininemia is often a symptom of renal failure, which can be acute or chronic. The main causes of high creatinine are the presence of hypertension, diabetes, dehydration or the use of substances harmful to the kidneys. Symptoms of elevated creatinine are ...

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LOW EOSYOPHILS causes and symptoms

LOW EOSYOPHILS causes and symptoms

The finding of low eosinophils is normally linked to a state of immunosuppression, that is, to a reduction in the function of the immune system. The most frequent causes of low eosinophilic granulocytes are the use of drugs (cortisone or chemotherapy for all) or the presence of bone marrow diseases.

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LOW CREATININE symptoms and causes

LOW CREATININE symptoms and causes

Creatinine is a protein that represents the waste product resulting from the normal breakdown of muscle tissue. Creatinine is filtered through the kidneys and excreted in the urine. The finding of low creatinine in the blood often indicates a reduced muscle mass. A low creatinine then goes ...

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Urinary sodium

Urinary sodium

Urinary sodium is a type of test that measures how much sodium (Na) is eliminated in the urine over a certain period of time. It is a useful test to understand the nature of alterations in the quantity of mineral salts and liquids in our body, as in hypernatremia (excess sodium in the blood) ...

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Androstenediol

Androstenediol

Androstenediol is a sex steroid hormone and is involved in the development and maintenance of the characteristics of the male organism. Androstenediol is therefore an androgen hormone, and in particular represents the amount of androgens active at the peripheral level (testosterone which is transformed into dehydrotestosterone), metabolized in sensitive tissues in ...

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HIGH TSH - HIGH THYREOTROPIN symptoms and causes

HIGH TSH - HIGH THYREOTROPIN symptoms and causes

A high TSH is almost always indicative of hypothyroidism. The causes and symptoms of high TSH are explained in this article. TSH (thyrotropin or thyrotropic hormone) is a substance produced by the anterior part of the pituitary gland, the adenohypophysis. It is the fundamental hormone that regulates the functionality and efficiency of the thyroid, ...

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Coxiella antibodies

Coxiella antibodies

Coxiella burnetii, commonly called Coxiella, is a gram negative bacterium responsible for Q fever, which is transmitted by ticks and can be transmitted by both domestic and farm animals, as well as wild animals. Diagnosis is made by measuring the anti-Coxiella antibodies. Contagion in humans ...

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TNF - Tumor Necrosis Factor

TNF - Tumor Necrosis Factor

TNF - TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR TNF is a cytokine (a type of acute phase protein) that comes into play during the inflammatory processes of our body. Tumor Necrosis Factor is also a glycoprotein as an oligosaccharide residue is linked to the classic protein structure of amino acids ...

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Chronic renal failure - CRI

Chronic renal failure - CRI

Each kidney is made up of over a million small units called nephrons, with two main structures: the glomerulus and the renal tubule. The glomerulus is made up of a dense network of capillaries wrapped in Bowman's capsule, and is the part of the nephron responsible for "filtering the blood" ....

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Cortisol - Cortisolemia

Cortisol - Cortisolemia

Measurement of blood cortisol levels (cortisolemia) may be helpful in diagnosing conditions of excess cortisol (high cortisol or hypercortisolism) and cortisol deficiency (low cortisol or hypocortisolism). It is important to underline that the dosage of cortisolemia is indicated only in patients in whom the probability of ...

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TSH ANTI RECEPTOR ANTIBODIES

TSH ANTI RECEPTOR ANTIBODIES

Antibodies to TSH receptors, also called anti TSH, anti rTSH, anti TSHR, TrAb or TSH ab, are auto antibodies targeting the receptor that binds thyrotropin (TSH). They are very common in autoimmune thyroid diseases such as Basedow-Graves disease, and are divided into stimulated antibodies and ...

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ANTI THYROOGLOBULIN ANTIBODIES

ANTI THYROOGLOBULIN ANTIBODIES

Anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, also called anti-tgb, TgAb, anti-htg or anti-tg antibodies, are antibodies directed against thyroglobulin, a precursor of thyroid hormones. Thyroglobulin antibodies belong to the group of thyroid autoantibodies or thyroid antibodies, together with thyroid peroxidase antibodies and antibodies ...

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TSH - THIREOTROPINE - TSH REFLEX

TSH - THIREOTROPINE - TSH REFLEX

TSH - thyrotropin TSH, also called thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone or thyroid stimulating hormone, is a substance produced by the pituitary gland. From the TSH values you can guess how the thyroid works: in fact, TSH is the main regulator of the two thyroid hormones: T4 (thyroxine) and T3 (triiodothyronine).

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FT3 and T3 - FREE TRIODOTHYRONINE

FT3 and T3 - FREE TRIODOTHYRONINE

Triiodothyronine (T3) is a hormone produced in part by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland, and in part synthesized in the peripheral body tissues starting from the other thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4). Triiodothyronine, a molecule characterized by 3 iodine units, circulates in the blood linked to specific plasma proteins, ...

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TIREOGLOBULINA

TIREOGLOBULINA

Thyroglobulin (Tgb or Tg) is a glycoprotein that is produced by thyroid cells, and is a precursor substance for the synthesis of the hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). It is used, like calcitonin, as a tumor marker for thyroid cancer.

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T4 and FT4 LOW - TOTAL and FREE LOW THYROXINE

T4 and FT4 LOW - TOTAL and FREE LOW THYROXINE

Thyroxine (T4), is the main hormone of the thyroid gland, which is produced thanks to the stimulating action of TSH (thyrotropic hormone or thyrotropin) produced by the pituitary. Thyroxine travels in the blood bound to specific proteins, and only a small part, free thyroxine (fT4) circulates in the blood not bound to proteins. There...

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