There mononucleosis is an infectious, contagious disease caused by the infection ofEpstein-Barr virus (EBV), which attacks our body, especially B lymphocytes. Infectious mononucleosis is often called Disease of the Kiss, as one of the main vectors of contagion is the saliva.
Mononucleosis and contagion
There mononucleosis is an infectious disease spread all over the world, which usually affects young people, aged between 15 and 30 years. More than half of people in their teens come into contact with it‘Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), and in the course of life almost 90% of people is “visited by the virus that causes it: only some, however, contract true mononucleosis, while in most cases everything happens in a“ silent ”way.
It will therefore be common to find IgG antibodies (memory antibodies) positive for the Epstein Barr virus, without ever having contracted the clinically manifest infection. Diagnosis of mononucleosis is done via a quick test called Monotest, which measures heterophile antibodies, or more precisely with the anti-EBV antibody assay.
It must be said that in the developing nations the contagion tends to be among younger people than those who reside in developed areas, probably due to the lower sanitation measures and the greater urban / rural crowding that unfortunately afflicts the countries of the third and fourth world.
That said, the mononucleosis it can also be transmitted in children or in adults, in the latter case with more severe symptoms than in young people.
There infectious mononucelosis it is a low contagious disease, that is, it can cause epidemics only in conditions of precarious hygienic-sanitary conditions combined with overcrowding and poor general health conditions. In developed countries, therefore, its low rate of contagiousness therefore makes it unlikely that the disease will spread in the workplace or in public transport.
Monunucleosis: causes of the infection
What are the causes of infection for mononucleosis? How does the infection happen?
The contagiousness of mononucelosis is, as already said, rather low, and the contagion can occur mainly by direct or indirect modality.
The contagion can happen for direct route in the following cases:
- Via pharyngeal gold: by exchange of saliva, for example during a kiss. Hence the name "kissing disease".
- By air: through droplets of saliva or nasal secretions dispersed in the surrounding environment (droplte), even if there are doubts that the low viral load present here could actually be infectious.
Or for indirect way in the following situations:
- Through the use of objects with traces of infected biological materiale.g. cutlery, glasses, plates, towels, toothbrushes, toys. The transmission in the pool is controversial, as it is possible but unlikely, given the enormous dilution that the virus would have in the overall volume of the pool.
There is no evidence that sexual intercourse (other than kissing itself) can transmit mononucleosis.
Mononucleosis can be passed on from animals or to animals? No mononucleosis is a human transmitted disease.
Mononucleosis how to avoid contagion
How to avoid being infected with mononucleosis?
Obviously for avoid contagion basic hygiene standards must be taken into consideration, such as not using other people's personal objects (toothbrush, plates and cutlery, clothing), and, if the diagnosis of mononucleosis in a person is known, avoiding intimate relationships.
How long does the contagiousness of mononucleosis last?
There contagiousness of mononucleosis lasts for a long time, even up to a year from the time you come into contact with the EBV virus. This is because the virus continues to be cleared from the rhino-pharynx for many months even after the symptoms of mononucleosis have subsided and the person is considered clinically cured.
Once mononucleosis has occurred, people with a functioning immune system can no longer recover after recovery get sick a second time.
Mononucleosis is dangerous in pregnancy?
The disease does not pose a danger to pregnant women, although obviously it is better to avoid coming into contact with people suffering from mononucelosis, and, if necessary, promptly notify your doctor and / or gynecologist. Furthermore, for pregnant women, there are no clear data linking mononucleosis with fetal malformations and spontaneous abortion, even if the following study showed a slightly shorter duration of pregnancy for people who contract or reactivate mononucelosis during pregnancy.
What is the incubation period for mononucleosis? How long does it take for symptoms from the infection to appear?
The incubation period of mononucleosis it is very long, ranging from 30 to 60 days. So when symptoms appear, contact with theEBV it probably happened in the previous 4-8 weeks.Tags: Infectious diseases Virus