Cholesterol

Cholesterol

Cholesterol

Cholesterol Cholesterol belongs to the family of lipids, or fats, is one of the components of the cell membrane and is found in the blood and all tissues. Although it is essential for building healthy cells in physiological quantities, when circulating levels are high, it is one of the main factors of ...

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Aldosterone normal, high and low values

Aldosterone normal, high and low values

What is aldosterone Aldosterone is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal gland, the adrenal gland, from cholesterol. It is the main hormone produced in the first part of the cortical portion of the adrenal gland, called the glomerular zone. What aldosterone is used for: metabolism and functions Unlike most of the cortical tissue of the ...

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Orthopantomography - OPT

Orthopantomography - OPT

Orthopantomography What is orthopantomography - OPT By orthopantomography or orthopanoramic, or OPT, we mean a particular type of radiography, for the study of dental arches. It is a real dental x-ray, which includes all the teeth, which is why it is also called a dental panoramic. To perform an orthopantomography not ...

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FACTOR REUMATOID: valores normales, altos y bajos

FACTOR REUMATOID: valores normales, altos y bajos

Qué es el factor rheumatoid? The rheumatoid factor (acrónimo FR) is an anticuerpo, or glicoproteína producida por las células plasmáticas, llamado así porque a menudo se associa with “rheumatoid artritis” (pathología autoinmune frecuente en las mujeres). Los anticuerpos, or inmunoglobulinas, son pequeñas glicoproteínas simétricas, compuestas de cuatro cadenas ...

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RHEUMATOID FACTOR: normal, high and low values

RHEUMATOID FACTOR: normal, high and low values

What is rheumatoid factor Rheumatoid factor (abbreviation FR) is an antibody, that is a glycoprotein produced by plasma cells, so called because it is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis (autoimmune disease frequent in women). Antibodies, or immunoglobulins, are small symmetrical glycoproteins, composed of four two-by-two symmetrical peptide chains ...

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Platelets or PLT

Platelets or PLT

Platelets (also called thrombocytes or PLT) are corpuscular elements of the blood that are responsible for blocking blood loss in case of vascular lesions through the process of haemostasis and coagulation. What are platelets? Platelets, with an average life of 10 days, are produced ...

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SCINTIGRAPHY: uses, risks and contraindications

SCINTIGRAPHY: uses, risks and contraindications

Scintigraphy Scintigraphy is a nuclear medicine investigation, and is based on the injection of radiopharmaceuticals and the subsequent reconstruction of an image by exploiting the radioactive decay of the injected substances. Physical principles The radiopharmaceuticals used in scintigraphy can vary according to the application of the examination (for example, technetium is used in scintigraphy ...

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LDH - Lactic dehydrogenase

LDH - Lactic dehydrogenase

LDH - Lactic dehydrogenase What is lactic dehydrogenase (LDH)? Lactic dehydrogenase or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of glucose, a carbohydrate essential for the functioning of our body. It is localized in different tissues, but mainly at the level of: skeletal muscles in the liver ...

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DYSTIMIA: causes, symptoms and treatment

DYSTIMIA: causes, symptoms and treatment

Dysthymia or dysthymic disorder What is dysthymia? Dysthymic disorder (formerly known as depressive neurosis or simply dysthymia) is a chronic and milder form of depression, a disease that is part of mood disorders. When it comes to dysthymia, the depressive episode is continuous (it can last for years) and involves more aspects of the life of those who are ...

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VITAMIN K - PHYTOMENADIONE

VITAMIN K - PHYTOMENADIONE

Vitamin K - Phytomenadione Definition, structure and chemical forms As per the definition of all substances called "vitamins", phytomenadione is a molecule that must be introduced into the body from the outside, as the human body is unable to synthesize it from other molecules. With the term "vitamin K", in ...

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PERITONEUM: anatomy, functions, pathologies

PERITONEUM: anatomy, functions, pathologies

Peritoneum Features and functions What is the peritoneum? The peritoneum is a serous membrane, which is an epithelial tissue formed by a layer of very thin cells, called mesothelium. This type of tissue is present only in the walls of three cavities of our body: in the pleura, which covers the lungs, in the pericardium, which covers the heart, and precisely in the abdomen, ...

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ANEMIA: causes, symptoms and treatment

ANEMIA: causes, symptoms and treatment

Anemia is a very common condition. The diagnosis is made through the analysis of the blood count: the finding of low hemoglobin, low red blood cells or low hematocrit on blood tests means suffering from anemia. The main causes of anemia are macrocytic and iron deficiency anemias, hemoglobinopathies such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. The main symptoms of anemia are skin paleness, fatigue ...

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LOW NEUTROPHIL GRANULOCYTES or NEUTROPENIA: symptoms and causes

LOW NEUTROPHIL GRANULOCYTES or NEUTROPENIA: symptoms and causes

The finding of low neutrophilic granulocytes (more properly: low granulocytes or neutropenia) is not uncommon, and is often accompanied by the presence of low leukocytes (leukopenia), since neutrophils are the main components of white blood cells together with lymphocytes. The causes of low neutrophils are mainly disorders of bone marrow production, neoplasms, but also drugs, acute inflammatory states and ...

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INTERNAL and EXTERNAL HEMORROIDS: symptoms, remedies and treatment of haemorrhoidal disease in pregnancy

INTERNAL and EXTERNAL HEMORROIDS: symptoms, remedies and treatment of haemorrhoidal disease in pregnancy

Hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids are venous gavoccioli (small swellings) located near the anal sphincter. Hemorrhoids originate from the internal and external hemorrhoidal plexuses, configuring respectively the internal and external hemorrhoids, and normally do not give particular symptoms. In some conditions, however, they can swell, giving an unpleasant ...

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Lansoprazole

Lansoprazole

Lansoprazole Lansoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) drug used to counteract stomach acid. It is normally used in the treatment of gastritis and duodenitis, of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer, and in the gastric protection in patients who take ...

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FECHROMOCYTOMA: causes, symptoms and therapy

FECHROMOCYTOMA: causes, symptoms and therapy

FEOCHROMOCYTOMA Pheochromocytoma is a tumor producing catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline) and represents a rare cause of hypertension: however, its recognition is extremely important as the disease is susceptible to resolutive surgical therapy. It is a tumor that affects cells of neuroectodermal derivation, that is, coming from ...

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HIGH BILIRUBIN or HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA: symptoms and causes

HIGH BILIRUBIN or HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA: symptoms and causes

Bilirubin is a waste substance of the body, which results from the breakdown of hemoglobin. A high bilirubin can result from the presence of problems with the liver (hepatitis, cirrhosis) or with the biliary tract (obstruction or infection of the gallbladder and bile ducts, causing direct hyperbilirubinemia). An increase in indirect bilirubin on the other hand is frequently ...

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SYMPTOMS OF MONONUCLEOSIS

SYMPTOMS OF MONONUCLEOSIS

Mononucleosis is an infectious, contagious, usually acute and short-lived disease of viral aetiology characterized by fever, swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), enlarged spleen (splenomegaly), increased white blood cells (leukocytosis) and presence in the circulation of atypical mononuclear cells.

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LOW LYMPHOCYTES - LYMPHOPENIA symptoms and causes

Low lymphocytes or lymphopenia, a common condition that should be investigated as soon as possible.

Low lymphocytes or lymphopenia: main symptoms and causes The finding of low lymphocytes (lymphopenia or lymphocytopenia) is less common than lymphocytosis. Causes of low lymphocytes can be abnormalities of bone marrow function, tumors, numerous drugs, the presence of an acute inflammatory state or infections, especially viral ones. Symptoms of ...

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LOW ESR symptoms and causes

LOW ESR symptoms and causes

The finding of low ESR is less frequent than the finding of high ESR. The main causes of low ESR are dehydration, increased blood density due to the presence of a high number of red blood cells in the blood, a reduction in the protein concentration in the blood or an allergic state. The main symptoms of reduced ESR are those related ...

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VES ALTA symptoms and causes

VES ALTA symptoms and causes

The finding of high ESR is indicative of an ongoing inflammatory state. The main causes of high ESR are infectious, autoimmune, rheumatological diseases and everything that increases the state of inflammation of our organism. The main symptoms of high ESR are fever, joint pain, sweating and all symptoms ...

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LOW TRIGLYCERIDES symptoms and causes

LOW TRIGLYCERIDES symptoms and causes

The finding of low triglycerides is less frequent than the finding of high triglycerides. Triglycerides are fatty substances used as a source of energy and in the metabolism of cells. The main causes of low triglycerides are usually a state of malnutrition or malnutrition, more rarely it depends on liver disease or ...

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High creatinine symptoms and causes

High creatinine symptoms and causes

 High creatinine High creatinine or hypercreatininemia is often a symptom of renal failure, which can be acute or chronic. The main causes of high creatinine are the presence of hypertension, diabetes, dehydration or the use of substances harmful to the kidneys. Symptoms of elevated creatinine are ...

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LOW EOSYOPHILS causes and symptoms

LOW EOSYOPHILS causes and symptoms

The finding of low eosinophils is normally linked to a state of immunosuppression, that is, to a reduction in the function of the immune system. The most frequent causes of low eosinophilic granulocytes are the use of drugs (cortisone or chemotherapy for all) or the presence of bone marrow diseases.

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LOW CREATININE symptoms and causes

LOW CREATININE symptoms and causes

Creatinine is a protein that represents the waste product resulting from the normal breakdown of muscle tissue. Creatinine is filtered through the kidneys and excreted in the urine. The finding of low creatinine in the blood often indicates a reduced muscle mass. A low creatinine then goes ...

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Paracetamol

Paracetamol

Paracetamol is an antipyretic (lowers fever) and pain reliever (analgesic, reduces pain) drug. It is a widely used drug, known by the trade name of Tachipirina, and has few side effects if taken at the recommended dosages. On the other hand, it can be very harmful if taken at too high doses and higher than ...

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Paracetamol

Paracetamol

Paracetamol is a drug used as an analgesic (pain reliever) and as an antipyretic (to reduce fever). Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is often called Tachipirina, as this is its most common trade name: it should not be forgotten, however, that there are numerous other trade names, such as Efferalgan, Acetamol, Codamol and many others.

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Paracetamol mechanism of action

Paracetamol mechanism of action

Paracetamol is a drug used as an analgesic (pain reliever) and as an antipyretic (to reduce fever). Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is often called Tachipirina, as this is its most common trade name: it should not be forgotten, however, that there are numerous other trade names, such as Efferalgan, Acetamol, Codamol and many others.

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Urinary sodium

Urinary sodium

Urinary sodium is a type of test that measures how much sodium (Na) is eliminated in the urine over a certain period of time. It is a useful test to understand the nature of alterations in the quantity of mineral salts and liquids in our body, as in hypernatremia (excess sodium in the blood) ...

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Androstenediol

Androstenediol

Androstenediol is a sex steroid hormone and is involved in the development and maintenance of the characteristics of the male organism. Androstenediol is therefore an androgen hormone, and in particular represents the amount of androgens active at the peripheral level (testosterone which is transformed into dehydrotestosterone), metabolized in sensitive tissues in ...

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HIGH TSH - HIGH THYREOTROPIN symptoms and causes

HIGH TSH - HIGH THYREOTROPIN symptoms and causes

A high TSH is almost always indicative of hypothyroidism. The causes and symptoms of high TSH are explained in this article. TSH (thyrotropin or thyrotropic hormone) is a substance produced by the anterior part of the pituitary gland, the adenohypophysis. It is the fundamental hormone that regulates the functionality and efficiency of the thyroid, ...

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Coxiella antibodies

Coxiella antibodies

Coxiella burnetii, commonly called Coxiella, is a gram negative bacterium responsible for Q fever, which is transmitted by ticks and can be transmitted by both domestic and farm animals, as well as wild animals. Diagnosis is made by measuring the anti-Coxiella antibodies. Contagion in humans ...

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TNF - Tumor Necrosis Factor

TNF - Tumor Necrosis Factor

TNF - TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR TNF is a cytokine (a type of acute phase protein) that comes into play during the inflammatory processes of our body. Tumor Necrosis Factor is also a glycoprotein as an oligosaccharide residue is linked to the classic protein structure of amino acids ...

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Chronic renal failure - CRI

Chronic renal failure - CRI

Each kidney is made up of over a million small units called nephrons, with two main structures: the glomerulus and the renal tubule. The glomerulus is made up of a dense network of capillaries wrapped in Bowman's capsule, and is the part of the nephron responsible for "filtering the blood" ....

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Cortisol - Cortisolemia

Cortisol - Cortisolemia

Measurement of blood cortisol levels (cortisolemia) may be helpful in diagnosing conditions of excess cortisol (high cortisol or hypercortisolism) and cortisol deficiency (low cortisol or hypocortisolism). It is important to underline that the dosage of cortisolemia is indicated only in patients in whom the probability of ...

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TSH ANTI RECEPTOR ANTIBODIES

TSH ANTI RECEPTOR ANTIBODIES

Antibodies to TSH receptors, also called anti TSH, anti rTSH, anti TSHR, TrAb or TSH ab, are auto antibodies targeting the receptor that binds thyrotropin (TSH). They are very common in autoimmune thyroid diseases such as Basedow-Graves disease, and are divided into stimulated antibodies and ...

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ANTI THYROOGLOBULIN ANTIBODIES

ANTI THYROOGLOBULIN ANTIBODIES

Anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, also called anti-tgb, TgAb, anti-htg or anti-tg antibodies, are antibodies directed against thyroglobulin, a precursor of thyroid hormones. Thyroglobulin antibodies belong to the group of thyroid autoantibodies or thyroid antibodies, together with thyroid peroxidase antibodies and antibodies ...

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TSH - THIREOTROPINE - TSH REFLEX

TSH - THIREOTROPINE - TSH REFLEX

TSH - thyrotropin TSH, also called thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone or thyroid stimulating hormone, is a substance produced by the pituitary gland. From the TSH values you can guess how the thyroid works: in fact, TSH is the main regulator of the two thyroid hormones: T4 (thyroxine) and T3 (triiodothyronine).

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CAUSES OF PERNICIOUS ANEMIA

CAUSES OF PERNICIOUS ANEMIA

Pernicious anemia is a disease caused by a reduced absorption of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin). Vitamin B12 is essential for the correct maturation process of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and is taken through the diet. Vitamin B12 is in fact introduced into our body thanks above all to foods such as meat, milk and ...

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SYMPTOMS OF PERNICIOUS ANEMIA

SYMPTOMS OF PERNICIOUS ANEMIA

Pernicious anemia is a disease caused by a reduced absorption of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin). The main symptoms of pernicious anemia are both symptoms related to the presence of megaloblastic anemia (tiredness, fatigue, confusion), and the deficiency of vitamin B12 which gives neurological symptoms (loss of strength and sensitivity up to ataxia and paranoid dementia) ...

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FREE THYROXINE - FT4 and T4

FREE THYROXINE - FT4 and T4

Thyroxine (T4), is the main hormone produced by the thyroid gland, following the stimulation of the thyrotropin hormone (TSH). Thyroxine travels in the blood bound to specific proteins, and only a small part, free thyroxine (fT4) circulates in the blood not bound to proteins. The free thyroxine however is the fraction ...

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FT3 and T3 - FREE TRIODOTHYRONINE

FT3 and T3 - FREE TRIODOTHYRONINE

Triiodothyronine (T3) is a hormone produced in part by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland, and in part synthesized in the peripheral body tissues starting from the other thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4). Triiodothyronine, a molecule characterized by 3 iodine units, circulates in the blood linked to specific plasma proteins, ...

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TIREOGLOBULINA

TIREOGLOBULINA

Thyroglobulin (Tgb or Tg) is a glycoprotein that is produced by thyroid cells, and is a precursor substance for the synthesis of the hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). It is used, like calcitonin, as a tumor marker for thyroid cancer.

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T3 and FT3 LOW - TOTAL TRIIODOTHYRONINE and FREE LOW

T3 and FT3 LOW - TOTAL TRIIODOTHYRONINE and FREE LOW

Triiodothyronine (T3) is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland, which is produced thanks to the stimulating action of TSH (thyrotropin or thyrotropic hormone) produced by the pituitary. Triiodothyronine travels in the blood bound to specific proteins, and only a minimal part, free triiodothyronine (fT3) circulates in the blood not associated with these ...

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T4 and FT4 LOW - TOTAL and FREE LOW THYROXINE

T4 and FT4 LOW - TOTAL and FREE LOW THYROXINE

Thyroxine (T4), is the main hormone of the thyroid gland, which is produced thanks to the stimulating action of TSH (thyrotropic hormone or thyrotropin) produced by the pituitary. Thyroxine travels in the blood bound to specific proteins, and only a small part, free thyroxine (fT4) circulates in the blood not bound to proteins. There...

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THYROID HORMONES

THYROID HORMONES

The thyroid hormones are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Thyroid hormones have an important function for the body: when our body is subjected to strong physical or psychological stress, or when the levels of thyroid hormones decrease in the bloodstream, a part of the brain, the hypothalamus, is stimulated ...

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