The anti cysticercosis antibodies they are antibodies to antigens of parasitic worms called Tapeworms, (or more correctly Taenia), belonging to the phylum Platelminti, class Cestoda.
The Tapeworms, and in particular the Tenia solium (scientific name Cysticercus cellulosae) and the Tenia Saginata (scientific name Cysticercus bovis) are parasites that colonize our intestine, where they reproduce and are eliminated through the faeces. The infection usually occurs through the ingestion of meat from infected animals, raw or poorly cooked. There cysticercosis, i.e. infection with Tapeworm, it can also happen through pets such as dogs or cats.
The most common name by which cysticercosis is defined is infection by "lone worm“.
The serological diagnosis of the cysticercosis confirms the clinical and radiological data and allows to evaluate the efficacy of the therapy. The antibody response can be detected when the first clinical manifestations appear, that is, the first symptoms; however, in some subjects, antibodies are not detectable in either serum or CSF due to compartmentalization of the cyst.
The dominant class of immunoglobulins is IgG (immunoglobulin type G). IgM, IgE and IgA do not play an important role in serological diagnosis. T. solium larvae do not induce a significant increase in total IgE, and specific IgE remain at low titers. The metacestode it stimulates a marked production of specific IgG in serum and liquor and, subsequently, an increase in total IgG in the liquor but not in the serum. The antibody titer remains elevated as long as the cysts remain active.
The most used serological diagnosis for the detection of antibodies is the ELISA with a raw antigen, or a capture ELISA for the detection of the antigen in the CSF: Serological techniques using raw antigens show cross-reactions with specific antibodies to other helminthiases (echinococcosis, filariasis).
The enzyme linked immunotransfer blot reaches 100% of specificity. Using as antigen a glycoprotein fraction purified from T. solium cysts, seven bands of different molecular weight with diagnostic value (GP50, GP42-39, GP24, GPZ], GP18, GP14, and GP13) are identified by immunoblot, between which GP42 and GP24 are the most frequently recognized by the Signal of patients suffering from cysticercosis. As a diagnostic criterion, the presence of a single band is indicative of cysticercosis, or at least of contact with the T. solium cestode. In this way, regardless of the location of the cysts, the specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 98% was achieved.